Study Guide for Amos 1 by David Guzik (2023)

judgment of nations

A. The man and his message.

1. (Amos 1:1) We love the man.

The words of Amos, who was one of the shepherds of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam son of Joash king of Israel, two years before the earthquake.

A.the words of amos: This book by the prophet Amos is the only mention of this man in the Old Testament. The books of 1 and 2 Kings or 1 and 2 Chronicles do not mention this prophet and should not be confused with him.Amoz, the father of the prophet Isaiah (Isaiah 1:1).

I. The nameamoshalfLastoload bearer. Since most of Amos's prophecies refer to the coming judgment of the nations around Israel, or the judgment of Israel itself, he was a man of one sort.Last.

B.Who was one of the Tekoa sheep farmers?: It appears that Amos had no formal theological or prophetic training, although there was a school of prophets known as thesons of the prophetsAt that time (1 Reyes 20:35,2 Reyes 2:3-15,2 Reyes 4:1,2 Reyes 4:38). Amos was a simple man, a farmer, especially called to service.

I. Amos spoke of his origins and his callingAmos 7:14-15:I was not a prophet, nor was I the son of a prophet, but a sheep breeder and a sycamore grower. And the Lord took me while I was following the flock, and the Lord said to me: Go, prophesy to my people Israel.

ii. Amos used an unusual word to describe his work. Instead of himself as aSchäfer, the literal ancient Hebrew calls Amos asheep farmer. Amos probably chose this title to emphasize that he was really a shepherd and did not mean "shepherd" in a symbolic spiritual sense. The way God used Amos reminds us of the way he used Jesus' twelve disciples: ordinary workers who used to do great things for God.

iii. Amos was from Tekoa, a city about ten miles from Jerusalem. He seems to have delivered the prophetic message from him at Bethel (Amos 7:13), one of the southernmost cities in Israel, not far from Tekoa.

C.What did he see in relation to Israel?: Amos was primarily a prophetIsrael, although he also spoke to many nations. He served in the days of the divided monarchy (in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash). Most scholars date the ministry of Amos between 760 B.C. and 750 B.C.

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I. When Amos served as a prophet, God's people were divided into two nations for over 150 years. The southern nation was known asVery, and the northern nation was still known asIsrael. During the period of divided monarchy, the southern kingdom of Judah saw a succession of kings, some pious and some impious (AgeHe was one of the best kings of Judah). The Northern Kingdom ofIsraelhe saw nothing but a series of wicked kings.Jeroboam, son of Joashhe was one of the best kings of these evil men, especially politically and militarily, but he was still a wicked man (2 Reyes 14:23-29).

ii. For most of its history, the northern kingdom of Israel fought against Syria, its neighbor to the north. But around 800 B.C. He defeated the mighty Assyrian Empire of Syria and neutralized that power that was hindering Israel's expansion and prosperity. With Syria in check, Israel enjoyed great prosperity during the reign of Jeroboam II.

D.Two years before the earthquake:: “So we do not have any independent record of this earthquakeHeThe phrase does not help us out" (Boice).

2. (Amos 1:2) The Message of Amos.

And he said:
"Jehovah roars from Zion,
and his voice speaks from Jerusalem;
The shepherds' pastures cry,
and the top of Mount Carmel withers.”

A.Jehovah pleads from Zion: Amos brought a message of judgment. The first two chapters of Amos describe the Lord's judgment, first against the Gentiles, then against Judah and Israel.

B.And his voice speaks from Jerusalem: Israel, in direct disobedience to God, established rival centers of worship at Dan, Bethel, and Gilgal. When Amos said that the Lord was speaking from Jerusalem, he was reminding all of Israel where the center of true worship was.

C.The shepherds' pastures cry: Since Amos himself was a shepherd (Amos 7:14) knew how God's judgment might affect the earth. When God stopped the rain, sent plagues, or allowed conquering armies to come upon the earth, he didthe pastures of the shepherds cry.

D.The top of Carmel withers:caramelwas a prominent mountain in northern Israel, the scene of Elijah's dramatic confrontation with the prophets of Baal (1 Reyes 18:19-40). Since Elijah ministered before the time of Amos, it may be that Amos reminded Israel of this victory of the Lord of God over idolatry.

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B. Judgment on the nations.

1. (Amos 1:3-5) judgment on Damascus, the capital of Syria.

Thus says the LORD:
"For three transgressions of Damascus and for four
I will not avoid itpunishment,
Because they beat Gilead with iron tools.
But I will send fire to the house of Hasael,
Who will devour the palaces of Ben-Hadad.
I'm going to break those tooHilldamask Bar,
and exterminate the inhabitants of the valley of Aven,
And the one who holds the scepter of Beth Eden.
The Syrian people will be captive after Kir."
says the LORD.

A.For three transgressions of Damascus and for four I will not avoid their punishment: This phrase will be the preface to the announcement of God's judgment against all nations. That was not what was intendedDamascushe committed only three sins, and then God thought of a fourth sin; he just has the idea of ​​"sin on sin on sin."

B.Because they beat Gilead with iron tools: The region ofGileadit belonged to Israel, and God promised to judge Damascus and the Syrians because they had come against the land of God's people and had come with such complete destruction that it would be as if a deep plow had gone through the earth.

I. "tabla they trillspiked or iron teeth is probably a figure of speech implying extreme cruelty and utter thoroughness in dealing with those who resisted.” (Hubbard)

C.The people of Syria are captured after Kir: This was fulfilled in2 Reyes 16:9, which describes when the Assyrians attacked Syria because King Ahaz of Judah paid them off.Then the king of Assyria noticed him; because the king of Assyria came up against Damascus and took it, he led captive his people to Kir and killed Rezin(2 Reyes 16:9).

2. (Amos 1:6-8) Judgment on Gaza, city of the Philistines.

Thus says the LORD:
"For three transgressions of Gaza and for four
I will not avoid itpunishment,
Because they captured all the captivity
Deliverthemto Edom.
But I will send fire to the Gaza wall
Who will devour their palaces.
I will exterminate the inhabitants of Ashdod,
and he who has the scepter of Ashkelon;
I will turn my hand against Ekron,
and the remnant of the Philistines will perish."
Says the Lord GOD.

A.Because they took all the captivity to deliver them to Edom:gazait was a Philistine city on the west coast of Israel and Judah. Because they came against the people of God and they did ithand them over to Edom, God promised to bring judgmentgazaand the other cities of the Philistines (Aschdod,Aschkelon, Yscreen).

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B.all captivity: “The condemnation here is not against slavery itself, any more than the previous oracle was against war itself. The crime is not that soldiers were enslaved after being captured in battle, which was common practice, but that the Philistines used their temporary supremacy to enslave entire populations—soldiers and civilians, men and women, adults and children, young and old—for commercial purposes. gain. Gaza didn't even need the slaves. She just sold them to Edom for more money” (Boice).

3. (Amos 1:9-10) Judgment on Tyre, a city in Lebanon.

Thus says the LORD:
“For three transgressions of Tire and for four
I will not avoid itpunishment,
Because they gave all the captivity to Edom,
And he didn't remember the brotherhood pact.
But I will send fire on the walls of Tyre,
who will devour their palaces.”

A.Because they gave all the captivity to Edom: because the cityTires(in Lebanon, north of Israel) sinned against God's people like the Philistines (Amos 1:6-8), they would receive a similar verdict (Fire on the walls of Tire).

B.A fire on the wall of Tire: The walls of a city were its protection and its strength. If the walls caught fire, the city would be defeated.

4. (Amos 1:11-12) Judgment on Edom.

Thus says the LORD:

"Because of the three transgressions of Edom and the four
I will not avoid itpunishment,
Because he pursued his brother with the sword,
And throw away all pity;
His wrath tore endlessly,
And he saved his anger forever.
But I will send fire to Teman,
that will devour the palaces of Bozra.”

A.Because he chased his brother with the sword: the people ofEdomdescendant of Esau, brother of Jacob (later calledIsrael). In this way the Lord could speak of the peopleEdomandBrotherthe people of God, since they had common ancestors in Abraham and Isaac. God promised judgment against himEdombecause they attacked Judah (2 Reyes 8:20-22).

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B.And throw away all pity; his wrath tore without ceasing, and he kept his wrath forever: Edom resistanceVayaYzornwhen they should have put it away a long time ago. Therefore, the judgment of God would come upon them. We must learn to give our own.VayaYzornto God and let him be our avenger.

5. (Amos 1:13-15) Judgment on Amun.

Thus says the LORD:
"For three transgressions of the children of Ammon, and for four
I will not avoid itpunishment,
Because they destroyed pregnant women in Gilead,
That they could expand their territory.
But I'll light a fire on the Rabbah wall
and devour their palaces,
Amid the cries of the day of battle,
And a storm on the day of the hurricane.
Their king will go into captivity
He and his princes together.
says the LORD.

A.Why were pregnant women torn to pieces in Gilead?: the territory ofGileadbelonged to Israel and suffered attacks not only from Syria (Amos 1:3), but also from its neighbor to the west,amun. We could say that Amun sinned against themFuturekilling babies in the womb.

B.Their king will go into captivity, he and his princes together: Because of his attacks on Israel, God promised judgment against Ammon.

©2018 David Guzik — No distribution beyond personal use without permission

References:

  1. Boice, James Montgomery "Amos: The Minor Prophets" Band 1 (Hosea-Jonah) (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1983)
  2. Hubbard, David Allan "Joel & Amos: Introduction and Commentary" (Downer's Grove, Illinois: Inter-Varsity Press, 1989)

Updated August 2022

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FAQs

What is the lesson from Amos 1? ›

The lesson is simple — God gives warnings for our blessing. Israel did not heed the warnings of God and seek his forgiveness and received the consequence of its rejection of God's mercy. God gives us warnings today and we often disregard them. We then receive the consequences of our rejection of God's mercy.

What is the book of Amos Chapter 1 about? ›

This book contains the prophecies attributed to the prophet Amos, and is a part of the Book of the Twelve Minor Prophets. This chapter contains the prophecies of God's judgments on Syria, Philistia, Tyre, Edom, and Ammon.

What are three main topics in the book of Amos? ›

Amos lived in the kingdom of Judah but preached in the northern kingdom of Israel. His major themes of social justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.

What is the major message of Amos? ›

Amos wrote at a time of relative peace and prosperity but also of neglect of God's laws. He spoke against an increased disparity between the very wealthy and the very poor. His major themes of justice, God's omnipotence, and divine judgment became staples of prophecy.

What are the 8 oracles of Amos? ›

The book of Amos opens with a long section containing charges against and pronouncements of judgment upon eight Syro-Palestinian states-Damascus, Gaza, Tyre, Edom, Ammon, Moab, Judah, and Israel. Genre and Structure of the Material.

What did Amos warn against? ›

Amos fiercely castigated corruption and social injustice among Israel's pagan neighbours, Israel itself, and Judah; he asserted God's absolute sovereignty over man; and he predicted the imminent destruction of Israel and Judah.

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